Hacking as an ethos. It celebrates complex systems and the minds that create, manipulate, and dwell in them; it celebrates gamesmanship, that is, knowing how to play games, what the rules are and how to bend them, what rules underlie the rules.
A common cultural figure now, of course, but the nerd stereotype doesn't quite capture it. The characters in Silicon Valley were actually drawn really well, capturing certain subtypes and behavior patterns. Good caricature, but that doesn't mean it addressed the essence of hacking, if there is one.
Papert and Sussman, and Minsky of course, as attempts to take the hacker stance more seriously, to investigate it, to use it to revolutionize psychology and education as well as more obvious technical disciplines. Hidden
Stallman, ESR, and free software as a self-aware movement.
The RMS-led street protests, I bet most people don't even know about those...
Apple's polished designerism as kind of anathema to hacker stance. Hackerish software always has a scruffy aspect.
Hypercard as Apple's effort to make a hackerish environment within their tightly-controlled world. Very successful but eventually killed off. Loper OS » Why Hypercard Had to Die